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CREATE - Concrete as a Technology Enabler

SMMP Stage 1 - Public Report - Arup


  • Stage

    Stage 1

  • Project Lead

    Ove Arup & Partners Ltd

  • Project Sub-Contractors

    Cruz Atcheson Consulting Engineers Lda, British Precast Concrete Federation Ltd, Sea Power Ltd, Wello Oy, The Concrete Centre Ltd

  • Author

    Ove Arup & Partners Ltd

  • Date

    May 2018

The objective of Stage 1 of the Concrete as a Technology Enabler (CREATE) project was to identify where concrete has most potential for Wave Energy Converter (WEC) prime mover structures and to demonstrate that the material could enable a step change in the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCoE). The primary advantages of reinforced concrete over steel include a low unit cost (cost per tonne), access to an extensive supply chain and increased durability. Where feasible, equivalent concrete structures have a significantly lower CAPEX. In addition, offshore concrete structures typically have a minimum design life of 50 years and therefore further cost saving can be realised when this design life is utilised. Concrete structures are heavier than steel equivalents for a given strength. However minimising weight is not a primary concern for many WEC devices, particularly those requiring additional ballast. In these cases, structural concrete can present a more efficient solution by using the weight of the structure directly, rather than requiring additional ballast.


Stage 1 of the CREATE project aimed to confirm that concrete is a suitable construction material for WECs and then develop the most promising configurations (WEC type + concrete technology) to a sufficient level to quantify advantages relative to steel. The success of the technology developed by the project can be measured through LCoE, compared to the WES target of £150/MWh, based on a detailed design and manufacturing plan minimising technical risks.

Project Keywords: Design Load Cases, Simulation, Survival, Structure, Concrete, Point Absorber, LCOE, Stage 1, Materials

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